MOZART'S TRACES

FOLLOWING MOZART'S TRACES IN SALZBURG AND VIENNA

Alongside the Mozart memorials, countless squares and buildings in the Salzach city of Salzburg, as well as in the Danube city of Vienna, are closely bound to the name Mozart – from the Old University of Salzburg, the Magic Flute House in Salzburg right through to St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna.

Seperator
Mozart's Birthplace
Mozart’s Birthplace
©SMF/ A. Horner
Mozarts Geburtshaus (Mozart’s Birthplace), Getreidegasse 9

The house of the Salzburg tradesman and delicatessen owner Johann Lorenz Hagenauer is located right in the heart of Salzburg. The young Chamber Musician to the Princely Court in Salzburg, Leopold Mozart moved here with his wife in 1747. The Mozart family lived in this apartment on the third floor consisting of a kitchen, small room, living room, bedroom (where Mozart was born) and study for 26 years. All seven children were born here, although only two survived: Maria Anna Walburga (known as Nannerl) in 1751 and on 27 January 1756 Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus (Wolfgang Amadeus).

The Mozart family developed a close relationship with the Hagenauer family. Johann Lorenz Hagenauer supported Leopold Mozart’s travel plans. Thanks to Hagenauer’s correspondence with father Leopold we know so much about Mozart’s early years.

The Mozart Residence
The Mozart Residence,
©SMF/ C. Schneider
Mozart-Wohnhaus (The Mozart Residence),
Dancing Master’s House, Makartplatz 8-9

On the right side of the River Salzach is the Dancing Master’s House. Together with the Birthplace in the Getreidegasse this is one of the most important Mozart memorials in Salzburg.
After rather lengthy negotiations with the owner of the house, Maria Anna Raab, who was known as “Tanzmeister-Mitzerl”, the Mozart family moved in autumn 1773 to this house on the Hannibalplatz (known nowadays as the Makartplatz, No. 8-9). The apartment in the Getreidegasse had become too small and cramped.
With the move, the Mozart family escaped the mediaeval narrow confines of the Getreidegasse. From a window in the house one could watch the bustling activity on the square and “between four and five o’clock see people going to the theatre”. The spacious 8-room apartment offered sufficient space for entertaining friends of the family. In the garden they used to enjoy bowling or shooting for prizes, in a game known as “Bölzlschießen”, the shooting of small projectiles at round targets painted with amusing scenes.

International Mozarteum Foundation
Mozarteum Foundation
© SMF/ C. Schneider
Mozarteum, Schwarzstraße 26

On 20 September 1880, after the division of the Cathedral Music Association and Mozarteum into two separate institutions, the International Mozarteum Foundation was created. Its aim is to foster and preserve Mozart’s heritage and his music. In 1909 the International Mozarteum Foundation sought tenders for the design of a Mozart House. The commission went to Richard Berndl, an architect from Munich. From 1910-1914 the Mozart house was built in “art nouveau” style according to his plans, and came to be known as the Mozarteum.

The Magic Flute Summer-House
The Magic Flute
Summer-House
©SMF/C. Schneider
Zauberflötenhäuschen (The Magic Flute Summer-House)

The Magic Flute Summer-House is situated in the garden (Bastionsgarten) of the International Mozarteum Foundation, Schwarzstrasse 26. This is a small wooden structure, in which Mozart allegedly composed some sections of his opera “Die Zauberflöte” (The Magic Flute). The Magic Flute Summer-House was originally located in the garden next to the “Freihaustheater”, the ”Theater auf der Wieden”, in Vienna, where on 30 September 1791 “Die Zauberflöte” (The Magic Flute) was given its first performance. Mozart was allegedly locked in the house by Emanuel Schikaneder to ensure that he would finish the composition on time. Mozart also met singers there and rehearsed some parts of “The Magic Flute”. When the theatre was sold in 1873, the previous owner Prince Starhemberg donated it to the International Mozarteum Foundation. In 1874 the Magic Flute Summer-House was erected in the “Zwerglgarten” (Dwarf Garden), close to the Mirabell Palace; from 1877 to 1950 it was located on the Kapuzinerberg. The wooden structure had to be restored several times, especially after the Second World War, having suffered a considerable amount of damage during the bombing of Salzburg. In 1950 the Magic Flute Summer-House found its ultimate location in the International Mozarteum Foundation’s “Bastionsgarten”, where it can be visited during the summer months of July and August as part of a guided tour through the Mozarteum. Facsimiles of theatre bills of the premiere, as well as costume designs for a production of “The Magic Flute” from the year 1793 are on display.

Mozarthaus Vienna
©Mozarthaus Vienna/
D. Peters
Mozarthaus Vienna, Domgasse 5

The Mozarthaus in Vienna remains the center of Mozart’s life and work. It focuses on his years in Vienna, representing the culmination of his work. The beautifully preserved apartment in which the composer lodged between 1784 and 1787 is situated in Domgasse 5. In no other place did the musical genius compose more music than here. Mozarthaus Vienna presents an exhibition of Mozart’s life and work on three floors around this apartment. Visitors can find a comprehensive presentation of the time in which Mozart lived, his most important works, and his apartment that was adapted by the Vienna Museum, in which Mozart and his family spent two and a half years.

Erzabtei St. Peter, Salzburg (St. Peter’s Abbey)

Mozart was closely connected to St. Peter Abbey’s from an early age. For the first mass celebrated by the friend of his youth, Cajetan Rupert Hagenauer, Mozart composed the “Dominicus-Mass”. During his visit to Salzburg in October 1783 parts of the “Mass in C minor”, which remained a fragment, were performed. His wife Constanze sang the soprano role. In the cemetery behind St. Peter’s Abbey in the municipal crypt are the graves of Mozart’s sister Maria Anna Berchtold zu Sonnenburg and Mozart’s friend Johann Michael Haydn.

Cathedral Salzburg (Salzburger Dom)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s parents, Leopold and Anna Maria were married on 21 November 1747 in Salzburg Cathedral. W. A. Mozart was baptised in Salzburg Cathedral on 28 January 1756. From 1779 he was court organist and composed his church music – masses, offices, litanies, church chorales and church sonatas – almost exclusively for Salzburg Cathedral.

The Mozart Statue, Salzburg (Mozart-Denkmal am Mozartplatz)

In 1835 Sigmund von Koflern from Salzburg and the author Julius Schilling initiated a project to build a statue of Mozart in Salzburg. Many people in Salzburg responded to the call for donations so that the sculptor Ludwig von Schwanthaler from Munich and the royal caster Johann Stiglmaier could be commissioned to create the monument. On 4 September 1842 the statue was ceremonially unveiled in the presence of Mozart’s two sons on the Michaelerplatz (now known as the Mozartplatz). Constanze Nissen, Mozart’s widow, had died earlier the same year on 6 March 1842 in Salzburg. Franz Xaver Mozart, known as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (jr.), conducted a festive cantata he had composed himself in honour of his father.

St.-Sebastians-Friedhof, Salzburg (St. Sebastian Cemetery)

The cemetry of St. Sebastian is situated on the Linzergasse, which flanks the Kapuzinerberg. Many members of the Mozart Family found their final resting place close to the Chapel of Gabriel: in 1755 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s maternal grandmother, Eva Rosina Pertl; in 1787 Leopold Mozart; in 1798 Genoveva Weber, Constanze’s aunt and mother of Carl Maria von Weber; in 1805 Nannerl’s first daughter Johanna Maria Anna Elisabeth von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg; in 1826 Georg Nikolaus Nissen, Constanze’s second husband; in 1842 Constanze Nissen, Mozart’s widow. Mozart’s two sisters-in-law Aloysia Lange and Sophie Haibel were buried in St. Sebastian’s Cemetery but were later exhumed and buried in the municipal cemetery.

Old University Salzburg (Alte Universität)

At the age of five Mozart made his first stage appearance as a dancer in the school drama “Sigismundus Hungariae Rex” in the “Grosse Aula” (Great Hall) of the old university (it now houses the Department of Theology in the Hofstallgasse). His Latin school comedy “Apollo et Hyacinthus” was performed on 13 May 1767.

Collegiate Church / University Church, Salzburg (Kollegienkirche / Universitätskirche)

Mozart composed the “Mass in D minor” for the ceremonial commencement of the 40 hours of prayer in the Collegiate Church /(University Church), Universitätsplatz on 5 February 1769.

Residenz Salzburg

The first performance of Mozart’s sacred music drama “Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots” took place on 12 March 1767 in the “Rittersaal of the Residenz”, Residenzplatz 1. On 23 April 1775 the first performance of the serenade “Il Re pastore” took place. As a member of the Salzburg court orchestra Mozart gave numerous concerts in the Residenz.

Lodronische Palace of the First Born, Salzburg (Lodronischer Primogeniturpalast)

Mozart enjoyed making music with his friends in the “Lodronischen Primogeniturpalast”, Mirabellplatz 1, the building where the Mozarteum University is to be located. In 1776 and 1778 he wrote two serenades for the wife of the hereditary marshal Ernst Maria Johann Nepomuk Graf Lodron. He dedicated the Concerto for Three Pianos to her and her daughters.

Maria Plain Pilgrimage Church, Salzburg (Wallfahrtskirche Maria Plain)

Mozart composed the “Mass in F major” for the pilgrimage church of Maria Plain, where the Mozart family often used to have masses said. Earlier literature on Mozart used to maintain that he composed the “Coronation Mass” for this church but research proved this to be incorrect.

Mozart Memorial, St. Gilgen

A small memorial in St. Gilgen on Lake Wolfgang is dedicated to the persons who significantly influenced Mozart’s life: Anna Maria Walburga Mozart, his mother, and Maria Anna Walburga (Nannerl), his sister.
The County Court is today located on the Ischler Straße 15 in St. Gilgen, in the house where Mozart’s mother, Anna Maria Walburga Pertl, was born. Her father Wolfgang Nikolaus Pertl was court supervisor in St. Gilgen. After the death of her father, Anna Maria moved to Salzburg and married the violinist Leopold Mozart.
On 23 August 1784 Mozart’s sister Nannerl married Baron Johann Baptist Berchtold zu Sonnenburg and they moved into the house where her mother’s parents had lived. A small museum was set up in the County Court of St. Gilgen in 1983, where portraits and documents about Mozart’s family are on display.